Under this tradition, various studies have been carried out to study students' understanding of the scientific world and their conceptions of the nature of theories, hypothesis, experiments, and explanations. Carey et al. [#!carey-89!#] devised a teaching lesson designed to facilitate children's move from an inductivist epistemology (where scientific knowledge is seen as emerging from observation) to a hypothetico-deductive epistemology (where experimentation and observation are seen as purposeful theory-driven activities). Solomon et al. [#!solomon-94!#] in a similar study designed a teaching intervention based on episodes from the history of science.