See Stillings pp. 350-59.
Gardner sees a continuing important role for Philosophy in cognitive science: a ``dialectic role''. Philosophy has been crucial in formulating a set of questions worthy of study and in monitoring the course of these questions over the millennia. It sustains a dialectic within the discipline - as the one between rationalism and empiricism, and also one between disciplines of philosophy and empirical and theoretical cognitive science. It helps integrate work in disparate fields.