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First defined in 1977 by Flavell and Wellman in the context of Metamemory. Four levels of mental activity: 1. Actual implementation using hard-wired processes in the brain, 2. Retrieval from semantic storage, 3. Methods and strategies and 4. Metacognition, i.e. the knowledge, awareness, and (conscious or implicit) control/ monitoring of the lower levels of cognition.

Examples of metacognitive skills (from developmental as well as expert-novice studies) - awareness/ knowledge of: